Hyperglobalization Undermines Response to COVID-19 Crisis

U.S. Trade Deficits in Ventilators, Masks and Other PPE Increase, and Shortages Reemerge, Reflecting U.S. Overreliance on Imported Goods to Battle COVID-19

U.S. Exports Globally of Face Masks and Ventilators Continue to Rise into Summer, after U.S. Exports to China of Ventilators, Masks, Disinfectants, Gloves Spiked between January-March 2020

Trade Data Shows Significant U.S. Dependence on India and China for Key Medicines

Decades of hyperglobalization has undermined our resilience against the COVID-19 crisis. Even into summer 2020, the United States still cannot make or get critical goods people need with growing shortages of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as infection rates rise. More than 40,000 U.S. manufacturing facilities have been lost to 25 years of corporate-rigged trade policies that made it easier and less risky to move production overseas to pay workers less and trash the environment.

The infographics below show:

  • New information about the countries from which the United States imports medicines in 2019 that show deep U.S. reliance on China and India for many categories of medicines.
  • Updated data showing that the U.S. has grown even more dependent on imports from China and the rest of the world for key medical goods during the COVID-19 era as the U.S.-China and U.S.-world deficits in key medical goods increased through May 2020 (latest data available as of July 2020)
  • Updated data showing that U.S. exports of masks and ventilators to the world continued to spike through May 2020 after a major increase in U.S. exports of critical medical goods to China when U.S. domestic demand was highest in January-March 2020;
  • Data showing from what countries imports into the U.S. of critical COVID-19 response goods are sourced over time. (Wherever possible, we include data showing volume, not only value. Volume more accurately represents what is actually being traded, given that the value data often reflects distortions in price caused by corporate tax manipulations and transfer pricing.);

Having the world’s largest trade deficit year after year means the United States is extremely reliant on other countries to provide essential goods. As the COVID-19 crisis emerged art the starts of 2020, U.S. government officials urged U.S. firms to expand exports to China of the limited U.S. domestic production of key medical goods instead of considering U.S. residents’ needs.  Effective implementation of the Defense Production Act (DPA) to purchase and domestically allocate PPE, ventilators and more would have preempted the export frenzy we see in the data. Unfortunately, Americans are still in the dark about the extent to which these critical emergency powers have been used to control exports of critical supplies.

With many critical goods now mainly made in one or two countries, when workers there fall ill or governments prioritize their own peoples’ needs before exporting goods away, a worldwide shortage of masks, gloves, medicine and more quickly develops.

And, it’s hard to quickly increase production elsewhere. Long, thin globalized supply chains make it difficult to source inputs, parts and components needed to scale up domestic production during this crisis. And, monopoly patent protections in many trade agreements expose countries to trade sanctions if they produce medicine, ventilators and more without approval by and payment to pharmaceutical and other firms.

With policymakers and the public distracted, corporate lobbyists are pushing for more of the same trade policies that hatched the unreliable supply chains now failing us all. Instead, we must fundamentally Rethink Trade. The goals should be healthy, resilient communities and economic well-being for more people – not the current priority of maximizing corporate profits.

U.S. Exports of Critical Medical Goods to China
By Month, Jan. 2019-May 2020

Adjusted for Inflation

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Exports of Face Masks and Ventilators to the World Continue to Spike, Jan. 2019-May 2020

Adjusted for Inflation

 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Source: U.S. Census Bureau


U.S. Grows More Dependent on Imports from China and the World for Key Medical Goods During COVID-19 Era

(Comparing Jan.-May 2019 v. Jan.-May 2020)
Adjusted for Inflation

U.S. Trade Balance in Medical Goods with China

Month 2019 Exports 2020 Exports Percent Change 2019 Imports 2020 Imports Percent Change 2019 Trade Balance 2020 Trade Balance Percent Change
January $224,488,919.53 $281,173,310.33 25.3% $880,151,372.44 $748,216,600.01 -15% -$655,662,452.91 -$467,043,289.68 -29%
February $205,959,136.52 $437,299,181.51 112.3% $683,838,361.52 $557,126,852.85 -19% -$477,879,225.00 -$119,827,671.34 -75%
March $379,068,072.14 $357,969,256.07 -5.6% $605,879,151.49 $494,714,726.43 -18% -$226,811,079.35 -$136,745,470.36 -40%
April $300,766,802.21 $402,451,604.66 33.8% $702,215,127.67 $2,519,717,184.19 259% -$401,448,325.46 -$2,117,265,579.53 427%
May $369,998,801.91 $350,325,897.00 -5.3% $787,578,113.82 $4,647,610,859.00 490% -$417,579,311.91 -$4,297,284,962.00 929%
Jan-May Total $1,480,281,732.32 $1,829,219,249.57 23.6% $3,659,662,126.95 $8,967,386,222.47 145% -$2,179,380,394.63 -$7,138,166,972.90 228%

U.S. Trade Balance in Medical Goods with the World

Month 2019 Exports 2020 Exports Percent Change 2019 Imports 2020 Imports Percent Change 2019 Trade Balance 2020 Trade Balance Percent Change
January $4,769,620,643.06 $4,933,043,170.03 3.43% $12,405,156,282.90 $12,669,710,587.84 2% -$7,635,535,639.84 -$7,736,667,417.81 1%
February $4,814,616,423.45 $4,952,078,731.67 2.86% $10,223,073,822.71 $12,915,775,701.46 26% -$5,408,457,399.25 -$7,963,696,969.78 47%
March $5,549,660,498.09 $5,782,620,928.78 4.20% $12,638,640,179.42 $16,505,470,815.23 31% -$7,088,979,681.33 -$10,722,849,886.45 51%
April $4,862,168,987.28 $5,086,370,075.18 4.61% $14,100,558,927.85 $16,775,727,894.89 19% -$9,238,389,940.57 -$11,689,357,819.71 27%
May $5,146,810,373.64 $5,087,461,672.00 -1.15% $13,151,851,541.25 $17,432,667,660.00 33% -$8,005,041,167.61 -$12,345,205,988.00 54%
Jan-May Total $25,142,876,925.51 $25,841,574,577.66 2.78% $62,519,280,754.12 $76,299,352,659.42 22% -$37,376,403,828.61 -$50,457,778,081.76 35%


Top Sources of Key COVID-Response Imports to the United States



Where ever possible, we include data showing volume, not only value. Volume more accurately represents what is actually being traded. The value data often reflects distortions in price caused by patents and corporate tax manipulations.

Medical Devices

Medical Device (All Sub-Categories) Imports Into the U.S. by Volume (units)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

"Ventilators and Oxygen Apparatus" are a subset of the category "Medical Devices" and included in the import source data below.

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
China 80,888,258 China 67,961,961 China 41,583,102 Taiwan 11,889,716
Mexico 10,758,529 Mexico 8,501,851 Mexico 16,772,794 India 7,781,760
Costa Rica 4,466,681 Germany 3,695,057 Taiwan 5,943,614 Mexico 6,461,527
Germany 3,670,711 Japan 2,575,858 Japan 5,927,395 Brazil 5,299,312
Japan 3,178,306 Taiwan 1,704,199 India 5,499,082 South Korea 4,901,745
South Korea 2,607,248 India 1,126,744 United Kingdom 4,480,608 Hong Kong 4,679,468
Vietnam 2,579,764 South Korea 1,095,917 Hong Kong 2,550,565 China 2,946,435
Bulgaria 1,535,815 Hong Kong 522,926 Germany 2,458,724 Japan 1,911,476
Sweden 1,513,698 United Kingdom 491,233 South Korea 1,462,179 Ireland 605,431
Indonesia 1,266,168 Philippines 379,846 Brazil 1,068,194 Colombia 558,165
Sum of Imports by Volume 112,465,1785 Sum of Imports by Volume 88,055,5925 Sum of Imports by Volume 87,746,2575 Sum of Imports by Volume 47,035,035

Medical Device (All Sub-Categories) Exports From the U.S. by Volume (units)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Canada 4,039,464 United Kingdom 10,910,491 United Kingdom 2,356,363 Finland 1,122,498
Belgium 2,945,381 Germany 5,169,903 Canada 2,284,248 Germany 1,049,189
Mexico 933,925 Canada 2,756,255 Mexico 1,343,242 Canada 913,097
Indonesia 927,572 Japan 919,701 Germany 1,020,265 Sweden 593,334
Germany 673,396 Thailand 556,224 Chile 939,216 China 568,464
United Kingdom 476,150 Mexico 387,609 Switzerland 417,702 Panama 311,403
South Korea 390,487 New Zealand 242,463 France 390,942 United Kingdom 301,395
China 362,769 France 168,651 Austria 313,018 Mexico 290,177
Russia 319,797 Guatemala 139,237 Japan 241,561 Australia 251,078
Japan 233,830 Belgium 109,639 Brazil 238,360 Japan 215,601
Sum of Exports by Volume 11,302,771 Sum of Exports by Volume 21,360,173 Sum of Exports by Volume 9,544,917 Sum of Exports by Volume 5,616,236

Medical Device (All Sub-Categories) Imports Into the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
Mexico $4,891,965,092 Mexico $2,673,054,050 Japan $705,249,056 Japan $410,530,144
Germany $2,653,179,929 Germany $1,530,648,285 Mexico $616,442,510 Germany $250,148,095
China $1,856,640,550 China $961,613,640 Germany $591,621,588 Mexico $169,686,633
Ireland $1,535,868,333 Japan $891,915,144 Dominican Republic $342,549,535 Dominican Republic $60,284,283
Japan $1,361,353,123 Costa Rica $617,001,581 China $213,110,255 United Kingdom $56,135,102
Singapore $1,068,844,559 Ireland $467,972,599 Singapore $204,414,885 Singapore $53,106,828
Costa Rica $1,013,430,839 Australia $387,442,802 Israel $183,140,663 Ireland $41,444,790
Dominican Republic $838,807,248 Dominican Republic $366,423,358 United Kingdom $130,932,743 France $37,554,719
Israel $767,004,334 Israel $312,312,366 France $92,396,005 Netherlands $33,584,960
Switzerland $738,790,341 Switzerland $276,097,537 Ireland $90,617,281 Pakistan $31,290,837
Sum of Imports by Value $16,725,884,348 Sum of Imports by Value $8,484,481,362 Sum of Imports by Value $3,170,474,521 Sum of Imports by Value $1,143,766,391

Medical Device (All Sub-Categories) Exports From the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Netherlands $1,963,037,159 Germany $1,119,990,703 Japan $754,863,734 Japan $347,775,049
Japan $1,397,121,226 Japan $1,111,205,610 Germany $620,156,776 Germany $270,079,132
Mexico $1,278,812,981 Netherlands $895,730,268 Canada $462,593,904 Canada $201,720,592
China $1,041,929,756 Mexico $838,773,482 France $449,864,588 France $148,228,505
Germany $984,315,463 Canada $795,682,103 Netherlands $391,234,833 Netherlands $133,772,046
Canada $913,270,657 Belgium $795,340,624 United Kingdom $302,648,805 United Kingdom $127,531,796
Belgium $696,224,970 United Kingdom $618,527,502 Mexico $288,430,429 Italy $83,961,226
Australia $549,358,259 France $604,750,402 Belgium $172,237,136 Mexico $81,911,708
United Kingdom $369,055,681 China $469,877,316 Italy $159,766,967 Australia $74,304,550
South Korea $352,149,764 Australia $434,971,124 Australia $149,366,245 Belgium $60,525,993
Sum of Exports by Value $9,545,275,916 Sum of Exports by Value $7,684,849,134 Sum of Exports by Value $3,751,163,417 Sum of Exports by Value $1,529,810,597

Ventilator and Oxygen Apparatus Imports Into the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

“Ventilators and Oxygen Apparatus” are a subset of the category “Medical Devices.” At this level of detail, data is only available by value, not by volume.

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
Singapore $919,514,568 Australia $373,175,399 Mexico $105,160,948 Mexico $41,483,774
China $449,696,746 Mexico $305,683,459 Ireland $63,011,992 Sweden $12,950,801
Mexico $413,936,879 China $204,273,285 Australia $36,344,533 Germany $4,376,534
Australia $256,032,376 New Zealand $99,741,082 Sweden $28,780,950 Canada $4,051,012
New Zealand $117,454,865 Singapore $57,072,576 New Zealand $17,581,910 New Zealand $3,329,416
Sweden $90,193,501 Ireland $42,710,580 Germany $17,360,441 Hong Kong $3,263,071
Ireland $79,209,047 Germany $34,968,403 Italy $10,851,326 Norway $2,641,518
Germany $62,799,921 United Kingdom $32,703,362 Malaysia $10,739,064 United Kingdom $2,235,933
Switzerland $58,287,916 Canada $25,116,165 China $10,398,954 Switzerland $2,008,135
Malaysia $57,864,410 Taiwan $24,773,861 Canada $7,986,373 Denmark $1,193,509
Sum of Imports by Value $2,504,990,229 Sum of Imports by Value $1,200,218,172 Sum of Imports by Value $308,216,491 Sum of Imports by Value $77,533,703

Ventilator and Oxygen Apparatus Exports From the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

“Ventilators and Oxygen Apparatus” are a subset of the category “Medical Devices.” At this level of detail, data is only available by value, not by volume.

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Netherlands $1,963,037,159 Germany $1,119,990,703 Japan $754,863,734 Japan $347,775,049
Japan $1,397,121,226 Japan $1,111,205,610 Germany $620,156,776 Germany $270,079,132
Mexico $1,278,812,981 Netherlands $895,730,268 Canada $462,593,904 Canada $201,720,592
China $1,041,929,756 Mexico $838,773,482 France $449,864,588 France $148,228,505
Germany $984,315,463 Canada $795,682,103 Netherlands $391,234,833 Netherlands $133,772,046
Canada $913,270,657 Belgium $795,340,624 United Kingdom $302,648,805 United Kingdom $127,531,796
Belgium $696,224,970 United Kingdom $618,527,502 Mexico $288,430,429 Italy $83,961,226
Australia $549,358,259 France $604,750,402 Belgium $172,237,136 Mexico $81,911,708
United Kingdom $369,055,681 China $469,877,316 Italy $159,766,967 Australia $74,304,550
South Korea $352,149,764 Australia $434,971,124 Australia $149,366,245 Belgium $60,525,993
Sum of Exports by Value $9,545,275,916 Sum of Exports by Value $7,684,849,134 Sum of Exports by Value $3,751,163,417 Sum of Exports by Value $1,529,810,597


Protective Garments

Protective Garments (All Sub-Categories) Imports Into the U.S. by Volume (kg)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

"Gas and Face Masks With Filters" are a subset of the category "Protective Garments" and included in the import source data below.

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
China 5,646,600,483 China 3,140,959,508 China 939,746,410 China 17,892,743
Mexico 719,432,906 Mexico 986,101,946 Mexico 394,035,316 Taiwan 4,946,203
Canada 246,547,586 Thailand 123,413,641 India 140,026,520 South Korea 4,547,640
Japan 246,348,452 Taiwan 50,514,065 Taiwan 83,521,261 Mexico 3,573,976
India 199,353,137 India 44,187,321 Thailand 37,209,995 Hong Kong 3,294,444
Thailand 150,365,445 Canada 37,973,956 Dominican Republic 33,634,768 Indonesia 1,461,859
Vietnam 128,304,442 Colombia 35,145,625 Haiti 29,075,867 Pakistan 887,975
Israel 72,970,558 Pakistan 31,624,599 Indonesia 25,990,330 Philippines 761,066
Pakistan 58,057,419 South Korea 21,401,978 Hong Kong 24,465,955 Haiti 593,837
Taiwan 54,067,141 Indonesia 20,647,179 United Kingdom 22,382,604 Dominica 473,789
Sum of Imports by Volume 7,522,047,569 Sum of Imports by Volume 4,491,969,818 Sum of Imports by Volume 1,730,089,026 Sum of Imports by Volume 38,433,532

Protective Garments (All Sub-Categories) Exports From the U.S. by Volume (kg)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Mexico 36,057,728 Mexico 4,430,544 Mexico 2,708,460 Belgium 896,946
Canada 2,127,531 Dominican Republic 2,311,016 Belgium 785,006 Haiti 609,941
Australia 178,504 Belgium 1,312,422 United Kingdom 656,506 Mexico 486,090
United Kingdom 169,382 Canada 760,115 Japan 635,896 Japan 395,823
Japan 135,609 Brazil 519,305 Honduras 403,185 China 343,608
Peru 131,939 Panama 246,314 Haiti 201,804 Barbados 187,849
Netherlands 99,373 Japan 146,669 Canada 199,503 Jamaica 169,624
Panama 97,215 South Korea 143,964 Australia 178,806 Canada 129,290
Colombia 96,085 Malaysia 99,134 Netherlands 157,005 Saudi Arabia 82,672
Belgium 92,017 Taiwan 96,337 Panama 145,377 Thailand 72,721
Sum of Exports by Volume 39,185,383 Sum of Exports by Volume 10,065,820 Sum of Exports by Volume 6,071,548 Sum of Exports by Volume 3,374,564

Protective Garments (All Sub-Categories) Imports Into the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
China $6,851,684,907 China $3,301,460,066 China $1,096,612,603 Taiwan $199,858,750
Malaysia $1,691,536,092 Malaysia $795,559,462 Mexico $571,199,311 China $168,997,426
Vietnam $951,863,400 Thailand $495,651,365 Malaysia $544,384,490 Malaysia $143,830,131
Mexico $918,767,475 Mexico $468,834,497 Thailand $291,077,475 South Korea $115,458,165
Thailand $662,136,111 Vietnam $186,665,971 Taiwan $157,175,114 Mexico $91,324,047
Canada $336,624,794 Indonesia $152,293,355 Canada $83,736,351 Hong Kong $44,424,750
Bangladesh $303,822,993 Canada $114,505,059 Indonesia $78,981,896 Thailand $42,827,720
Indonesia $271,958,852 Dominican Republic $82,377,587 India $75,762,653 Canada $34,268,996
Sri Lanka $183,977,208 Honduras $81,820,457 South Korea $50,792,952 United Kingdom $29,680,102
India $129,028,766 Sri Lanka $64,715,155 Sri Lanka $50,269,325 Japan $18,862,399
Sum of Imports by Value $12,301,400,598 Sum of Imports by Value $5,743,882,974 Sum of Imports by Value $2,999,992,170 Sum of Imports by Value $889,532,486

Protective Garments (All Sub-Categories) Exports From the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Canada $327,246,178 Canada $185,985,295 Mexico $153,120,732 Mexico $103,433,638
Mexico $164,716,418 Mexico $95,061,531 Canada $106,699,398 Canada $53,156,358
Germany $47,789,872 Dominican Republic $78,467,034 Japan $74,113,696 Japan $29,961,801
China $46,114,819 Germany $56,705,823 United Kingdom $34,777,755 Germany $24,282,530
Australia $30,551,001 Japan $45,716,169 Belgium $32,795,050 United Kingdom $16,907,741
United Kingdom $30,341,913 United Kingdom $30,420,188 Germany $27,143,117 Belgium $13,297,195
Japan $28,990,628 France $24,483,973 France $22,423,007 Italy $10,501,075
France $28,522,263 South Korea $22,145,093 Dominican Republic $20,426,533 Australia $9,574,801
Belgium $28,230,000 Australia $20,167,889 Australia $18,620,417 Netherlands $7,795,286
Chile $23,661,077 Brazil $19,306,830 Netherlands $15,277,127 Haiti $7,173,783
Sum of Exports by Value $756,164,169 Sum of Exports by Value $578,459,825 Sum of Exports by Value $505,396,832 Sum of Exports by Value $276,084,208

Gas and Face Masks with Filters Imports Into the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

"Gas and Face Masks with Filters" are a subset of the category "Protective Garments." At this level of detail, data is only available by value, not by volume.

Top 10
Import Sources
2019
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
2009
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1999
Imports
Top 10
Import Sources
1989
Imports
China $3,189,272,000 China $1,439,141,060 China $503,920,296 Taiwan $58,989,311
Mexico $523,264,774 Mexico $343,820,813 Mexico $311,200,604 China $53,644,768
Canada $139,422,847 Dominican Republic $82,244,263 Taiwan $69,233,311 Mexico $38,610,215
India $97,544,450 Canada $54,163,585 India $62,659,051 United Kingdom $22,499,578
Dominican Rep $91,674,268 India $40,760,399 Canada $37,769,404 Canada $17,091,807
Vietnam $90,040,220 Taiwan $39,146,473 France $24,174,275 South Korea $15,366,986
United Kingdom $70,345,632 United Kingdom $34,287,073 United Kingdom $19,600,024 Japan $12,342,685
France $67,301,124 Thailand $30,532,552 South Korea $18,446,243 France $10,967,474
Taiwan $63,761,767 Germany $24,435,721 Thailand $18,271,588 Germany $10,159,004
Germany $45,273,494 Pakistan $20,319,764 Japan $15,958,726 Hong Kong $9,997,485
Sum of Imports by Value $4,377,900,576 Sum of Imports by Value $2,108,851,703 Sum of Imports by Value $1,081,233,522 Sum of Imports by Value $249,669,313

Gas and Face Masks with Filters Exports From the U.S. by Value (USD)
Not Adjusted For Inflation

"Gas and Face Masks With Filters" are a subset of the category "Protective Garments." At this level of detail, data is only available by value, not by volume.

Top 10
Export Destinations
2019
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
2009
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1999
Exports
Top 10
Export Destinations
1989
Exports
Canada $214,043,484 Canada $140,276,185 Mexico $88,460,583 Canada $40,769,309
Mexico $133,880,177 Mexico $71,323,597 Canada $78,812,335 Mexico $37,339,725
Germany $43,819,919 Germany $51,998,281 Japan $27,733,793 Germany $10,598,449
China $36,406,575 United Kingdom $24,075,495 Germany $17,492,626 Japan $10,139,555
France $26,662,602 Japan $21,842,438 France $16,565,891 United Kingdom $8,170,670
Belgium $26,528,804 France $21,252,087 United Kingdom $15,269,254 Australia $6,149,826
Australia $24,930,880 Hong Kong $16,648,680 Australia $13,808,153 Netherlands $5,930,967
United Kingdom $24,033,009 China $14,773,113 Netherlands $10,232,750 Italy $4,309,139
Japan $22,174,224 Brazil $14,453,160 Dominican Republic $9,992,822 France $2,731,902
Chile $20,877,425 Australia $14,189,206 Argentina $4,341,889 South Korea $2,650,994
Sum of Exports by Value $573,357,099 Sum of Exports by Value $390,832,242 Sum of Exports by Value $282,710,096 Sum of Exports by Value $128,790,536


Top Sources of Key Medical Drugs to the United States, 2019

Top Source of U.S. Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 95,131,474
Mexico 77,503,808
China 39,733,621
Canada 39,476,690
Italy 28,770,801
Germany 21,052,544
United Kingdom 13,906,757
Israel 12,502,123
Spain 11,905,196
Ireland 11,109,221
Top 10 Import Sources 351,092,235
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Drugs Sold in Measured Doses for Retail by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 82,428,488
Mexico 77,445,137
China 30,665,416
Canada 29,091,313
Italy 24,235,269
Germany 14,392,733
United Kingdom 11,533,205
Spain 10,523,851
Ireland 9,666,880
Israel 7,882,120
Top 10 Import Sources 297,864,412
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Sulfonamides (Antibacterials) by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
South Korea 153,403
Ireland 144,429
China 98,725
India 52,398
Mexico 49,530
Germany 19,567
Canada 11,360
Italy 486
Belgium 166
Switzerland 25
Top 10 Import Sources 530,089
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Anti-Infective Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 3,093,018
Mexico 789,875
Canada 779,604
Singapore 398,201
France 303,670
United Kingdom 293,441
Taiwan 216,549
Croatia 183,488
Germany 157,739
China 154,696
Top 10 Import Sources 6,370,281
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Cardiovascular Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 16,403,076
Canada 3,258,870
China 1,017,999
Singapore 784,454
Czech Republic 767,832
Italy 529,828
Israel 461,786
France 419,683
Bangladesh 317,996
Portugal 312,855
Top 10 Import Sources 24,274,379
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Painkillers by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
China 10,558,922
India 5,588,839
Canada 2,067,981
Japan 786,779
Germany 555,001
Italy 261,706
Israel 256,285
Spain 212,678
Sweden 188,958
Czech Republic 128,347
Top 10 Import Sources 20,605,496
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Sedatives by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 9,850,985
Austria 2,749,435
Italy 1,782,049
Sweden 1,731,923
Israel 675,319
Norway 482,706
Czech Republic 309,118
China 191,332
Switzerland 161,641
France 157,379
Top 10 Import Sources 18,091,887
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Diuretics by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 1,480,688
Canada 128,988
Czech Republic 86,315
Croatia 61,784
Italy 5,347
Israel 3,627
N/A N/A
N/A N/A
N/A N/A
N/A N/A
Top 10 Import Sources 1,766,749
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Cough & Cold Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
Canada 20,111,036
China 13,631,559
Switzerland 7,155,109
United Kingdom 6,981,467
Mexico 4,699,574
India 992,727
Spain 504,460
Italy 368,045
Germany 106,705
Pakistan 23,171
Top 10 Import Sources 54,573,853
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Drugs Affecting the Respiratory System, Eyes, and Ears by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
Ireland 3,400,505
France 1,419,181
India 1,371,653
Canada 905,788
South Africa 766,990
Belgium 597,824
Germany 481,949
China 475,788
Switzerland 354,227
Israel 302,786
Top 10 Import Sources 10,076,691
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

Top Sources of U.S. Antibiotics by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Imports by Volume (kg)
Top 10 Import Sources 2019 Imports
India 4,564,164
Italy 2,574,386
Jordan 1,858,484
China 1,765,892
Canada 1,076,038
Switzerland 962,067
Germany 780,248
United Kingdom 607,031
Brazil 515,999
Austria 442,149
Top 10 Import Sources 15,146,458
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

U.S. Import Reliance on China & India for Particular Drugs by Volume, 2019

Data Notes

Download the Full Dataset

Data sourced from the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. International Trade Commission. HS codes for product categories were compiled based on our research, as well as similar studies and guidance from the World Customs Organization. In some instances, volume data was not available at the needed level of detail or was accounted for in different units of measurement by bilateral trade relationship. The 1989-2019 data is not adjusted for inflation because doing so is not necessary to compare the relative rank of import sources and export destinations. In contrast, the 2019-2020 data, which measures growth in value over time, is adjusted for inflation to base month March 2020 so that the measurement is growth in real terms.

Technical Categories of Goods Based on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS)

CATEGORYSUB-CATEGORYFound Under HS Code*Product
Protective GarmentsFace and Eye Protection6307.90Face Mask with Filter
Protective GarmentsFace and Eye Protection9020.00Gas Masks
Protective GarmentsFace and Eye Protection3926.20Plastic Face Shields
Protective GarmentsGloves3926.2010Plastic Gloves
Protective GarmentsGloves4015.11Surgical Rubber Gloves
Protective GarmentsGloves4015.19Other Rubber Gloves
Protective GarmentsGloves6116.10Knitted or Crocheted Gloves & Covered w/ Plastic/Rubber
Protective GarmentsGloves6216.00Textile Gloves, Not Knitted or Crocheted
Protective GarmentsOther6505.00Disposal Hair Nets
Protective GarmentsOther6210.10Surgical/Medical Protective Equipment
Protective GarmentsOther6210.20Other Rubberized Textile Protective Garments
Protective GarmentsOther6210.30Other Rubberized Textile Protective Garments
Protective GarmentsOther6210.40Other Rubberized Textile Protective Garments
Protective GarmentsOther62.10.50Other Rubberized Textile Protective Garments
Protective GarmentsOther3926.20Protective Garments Made from Plastic Sheeting
Medical DevicesThermometers9025.11Liquid filled thermometer for direct reading
Medical DevicesThermometers9025.19Other thermometers
Medical DevicesCT Scanners9022.12Computed Tomography Scanners
Medical DevicesVentilator-like Products9018.90Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
Medical DevicesVentilator-like Products9019.20Ventilators
Medical DevicesVentilator-like Products9019.20Other Oxygen Therapy Apparatus
Medical DevicesOther Medical Devices9018.19Patient Monitoring Devices

*Sometimes multiple product categories are found under one 6-digit HS code; in such circumstances, the 6-digit HS code has been measured once for both products.