Hyperglobalization Undermines Response to COVID-19 Crisis

U.S. Trade Deficits in Ventilators, Masks, and Other PPE Increase and Shortages Reemerge, Reflecting U.S. Overreliance on Imported Goods to Battle COVID-19

Trade Data Shows Significant U.S. Dependence on India and China for Key Medicines

U.S. Global Exports of Face Masks Continued to Rise into Summer 2020, after U.S. Exports to China of Medicines, Masks, Disinfectants, and Gloves Spiked between January-April 2020

Decades of hyperglobalization have undermined our resilience against the COVID-19 crisis. Even into fall 2020, the United States still cannot make or get critical goods people need with growing shortages of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as infection rates rise again. More than 60,000 U.S. manufacturing facilities have been lost to 26 years of corporate-rigged trade policies that made it easier and less risky to move production overseas to pay workers less and trash the environment.

The infographics below show:

  • Updated data showing that the U.S. has grown even more dependent on imports from China and the rest of the world. for key medical goods during the COVID-19 era as the U.S.-China and U.S.-world deficits in COVID-19 related medical goods increased until June and have not returned to pre-pandemic levels through September 2020.
  • Data showing from what countries imports into the U.S. of key COVID-19 response goods are sourced over time. (Wherever possible, we include data showing volume, not only value. Volume more accurately represents what is actually being traded, given that the value data often reflects distortions in price caused by corporate tax manipulations and transfer pricing.).
  • New information about the countries from which the United States imported medicines in 2019 (the latest full year data available) that show deep U.S. reliance on China and India for many categories of medicines.
  • Data showing that U.S. exports of masks to the world continued to spike up until September 2020 after a major increase in U.S. exports of critical medical goods to China when U.S. domestic demand was highest in January-April 2020.

Having the world’s largest trade deficit year after year means the United States is extremely reliant on other countries to provide essential goods. As the COVID-19 crisis emerged in the beginning of 2020, U.S. government officials urged U.S. firms to expand exports to China of the limited U.S. domestic production of key medical goods instead of considering U.S. residents’ needs. Effective implementation of the Defense Production Act (DPA) to purchase and domestically allocate PPE, ventilators and more would have preempted the export frenzy we see in the data. Unfortunately, Americans are still in the dark about the extent to which these critical emergency powers have been used to control exports of critical supplies.

With many critical goods now mainly made in one or two countries, when workers there fall ill or governments prioritize their own peoples’ needs before exporting goods away, a worldwide shortage of masks, gloves, medicine and more quickly develops.

And, it’s hard to quickly increase production elsewhere. Long, thin globalized supply chains make it difficult to source inputs, parts and components needed to scale up domestic production during this crisis. And, monopoly patent protections in many trade agreements expose countries to trade sanctions if they produce medicine, ventilators and more without approval by and payment to pharmaceutical and other firms.

With policymakers and the public distracted, corporate lobbyists are pushing for more of the same trade policies that hatched the unreliable supply chains now failing us all. Instead, we must fundamentally Rethink Trade. The goals should be healthy, resilient communities and economic well-being for more people – not the current priority of maximizing corporate profits.


U.S. Grows More Dependent on Imports from China and the World for Key Medical Goods During COVID-19 Era

(Comparing Jan.-Sep. 2019 v. Jan.-Sep. 2020)
Adjusted for Inflation

U.S. Trade Balance in Medical Goods with China

Month 2019 Exports 2020 Exports Percent Change 2019 Imports 2020 Imports Percent Change 2019 Trade Balance 2020 Trade Balance Percent Change
January $231,899,939.20 $276,151,385.72 19.1% $725,219,393.75 $605,205,842.93 -17% -$493,319,454.55 -$329,054,457.20 33.3%
February $293,364,060.97 $482,404,059.66 64.4% $562,976,521.58 $432,860,206.79 -23% -$269,612,460.61 -$49,543,852.86 118.4%
March $347,379,306.86 $421,550,285.49 21.4% $534,962,392.27 $452,698,608.00 -15% -$187,583,085.41 -$31,148,322.52 83.4%
April $335,723,565.94 $445,704,655.80 32.8% $593,821,059.15 $2,455,134,812.08 313% -$258,097,493.22 -$2,009,430,156.27 -678.6%
May $396,768,856.72 $404,599,201.79 2% $642,717,819.81 $4,627,541,307.64 620% -$245,948,963.09 -$4,222,942,105.85 -1617.0%
June $418,070,385.93 $420,477,699.29 0.6% $596,322,418.75 $4,028,701,909.43 576% -$178,252,032.82 -$3,608,224,210.14 -1924.2%
July $337,619,397.81 $399,865,884.70 18.4% $673,488,825.14 $3,349,610,139.54 397% -$335,869,427.33 -$2,949,744,254.84 -778.2%
August $383,199,826.53 $417,413,682.01 8.9% $628,585,802.27 $2,885,457,744.29 359% -$245,385,975.74 -$2,468,044,062.28 -905.8%
September $360,918,515.97 $396,299,026.00 9.8% $585,393,897.97 $2,418,300,495.00 313% -$224,475,382.00 -$2,022,001,469.00 -800.8%
Jan-Sep Total $3,104,943,855.922 $3,664,465,880.45 18% $5,543,488,130.69 $21,255,511,065.69 283% -$2,438,544,274.77 -$17,591,045,185.24 -621.4%

U.S. Exports, Imports and Bilateral Trade Balance with China, January 2019 – September 2020

(USD Inflation-adjusted Million)

U.S. Exports, Imports and Bilateral Trade Balance with China

U.S. Grows More Dependent on Imports from China and the World for Key Medical Goods During COVID-19 Era

(Comparing Jan.-Sep. 2019 v. Jan.-Sep. 2020)
Adjusted for Inflation

U.S. Trade Balance in Medical Goods with the World

Month 2019 Exports 2020 Exports Percent Change 2019 Imports 2020 Imports Percent Change 2019 Trade Balance 2020 Trade Balance Percent Change
January $4,413,571,022 $4,594,902,521 4.1% $10,953,442,047 $11,429,094,522 4% -$6,539,871,025 -$6,834,192,001 -4.5%
February $5,323,892,068 $4,907,289,019 -7.8% $8,539,172,445 $10,522,546,599 23% -$3,215,280,377 -$5,615,257,580 -74.6%
March $5,459,370,889 $5,698,208,590 4.4% $10,826,153,327 $13,396,346,076 24% -$5,366,782,438 -$7,698,137,486 -43.4%
April $4,655,147,684 $4,981,114,770 7% $11,698,363,501 $14,862,758,984 27% -$7,043,215,817 -$9,881,644,215 -40.3%
May $5,005,707,949 $4,805,650,475 -4% $10,605,761,294 $16,007,372,139 51% -$5,600,053,345 -$11,201,721,664 -100.0%
June $5,064,448,204 $4,907,564,552 -3.1% $10,374,205,377 $16,647,426,815 60% -$5,309,757,173 -$11,739,862,263 -121.1%
July $5,764,696,466 $4,607,147,226 -20.1% $12,187,455,274 $12,085,800,115 -1% -$6,422,758,808 -$7,478,652,889 -16.4%
August $5,205,962,831 $4,607,262,774 -11.5% $11,729,260,105 $11,973,180,141 2% -$6,523,297,274 -$7,365,917,368 -12.9%
September $4,847,718,012 $5,030,321,342 3.8% $10,815,344,767 $10,213,935,962 -6% -$5,967,626,754 -$5,183,614,620 13.1%
Jan-Sep Total $24,857,689,612 $24,987,165,374 0.5% $52,622,892,613 $66,218,118,320 26% -$27,765,203,001 -$41,230,952,946 -48.5%

U.S. Exports, Imports and Bilateral Trade Balance with the World, January 2019 – September 2020 (USD Inflation-adjusted Million)

Adjusted for Inflation

U.S. Exports, Imports and Bilateral Trade Balance with the World

TOP SOURCES OF KEY COVID-RESPONSE IMPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES

Wherever possible, we include data showing volume, not only value. Volume more accurately represents what is actually being traded. The value data often reflects distortions in price caused by patents and corporate tax manipulations.

COVID-19 RELATED MEDICAL DEVICES

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Medical Devices by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Mexico 8,206,754,770 27% Mexico 3,881,982,719 26% Mexico 1,323,268,397 21%
Germany 3,265,161,773 11% Germany 2,032,245,572 14% Japan 987,700,579 16%
China 2,269,586,172 7% Japan 1,366,309,778 9% Germany 857,000,470 13%
Ireland 2,201,134,608 7% China 1,088,679,998 7% Dominican Rep 348,912,546 5%
Japan 2,084,490,902 7% Ireland 966,863,757 7% Israel 334,790,641 5%
Costa Rica 1,728,075,021 6% Costa Rica 620,810,194 4% Ireland 327,237,977 5%
Singapore 1,274,502,458 4% Dominican Rep 506,420,583 3% United Kingdom 268,411,776 4%
Switzerland 1,260,918,781 4% Switzerland 486,686,915 3% Netherlands 223,981,235 4%
Israel 981,734,772 3% Australia 391,730,743 3% Singapore 223,661,066 4%
Dominican Rep 805,123,270 3% Netherlands 377,391,378 3% Canada 193,381,083 3%
Rest of World 6,368,372,062 21% Rest of World 3,143,282,330 21% Rest of World 1,281,333,928 20%
Total 30,445,854,589 100% Total 14,862,403,967 100% Total 6,369,679,698 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Electrocardiographs (9018.11.3000) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Switzerland 312,242,442 92% India 4,040,784 32% China 9,435,659 53%
Mexico 13,733,208 4% Switzerland 2,022,518 16% Switzerland 3,689,378 21%
India 4,595,142 1% China 1,618,821 13% Germany 1,857,834 10%
China 3,182,740 1% Germany 1,553,654 12% Japan 1,517,245 8%
Singapore 1,333,572 0% Japan 1,058,598 8% Israel 467,834 3%
Germany 1,233,669 0% Israel 599,964 5% Italy 360,209 2%
Slovakia 433,524 0% United Kingdom 387,796 3% Australia 272,593 2%
Israel 398,477 0% France 210,380 2% United Kingdom 153,495 1%
United Kingdom 296,941 0% Austria 209,295 2% Sweden 45,726 0%
South Korea 250,476 0% Netherlands 148,904 1% Brazil 36,650 0%
Rest of the World 857366 0% Rest of the World 866915 7% Rest of the World 85432 0%
Total 338,557,557 100% Total 12,717,629 100% Total 17,922,055 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Electrocardiographs (9018.11.3000) by Volume (Unit)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation
Switzerland 122,337 80% Germany 3,867 24% China 3,531 29%
Mexico 7,993 5% India 3,012 19% Japan 2,871 23%
India 5,915 4% China 2,550 16% Switzerland 2,427 20%
China 5,504 4% Switzerland 1,903 12% Israel 1,484 12%
Germany 4,858 3% Japan 1,110 7% Germany 1,226 10%
Slovakia 2,724 2% Austria 1,000 6% Italy 365 3%
Israel 723 0% United Kingdom 608 4% United Kingdom 169 1%
Singapore 636 0% Israel 482 3% Australia 58 0%
South Korea 607 0% Netherlands 258 2% Brazil 50 0%
Japan 383 0% Italy 207 1% Hungary 29 0%
Rest of the World 1,103 1% Rest of the World 1,080 7% Rest of the World 45 0%
Total 152,783 100%   Total 16,077 100% Total 12,255 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Ultrasound Machines (9018.12.0000) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
South Korea 111,743,432 28% South Korea 41,726,463 21% Japan 38,985,176 35%
China 78,437,997 20% Japan 32,735,680 17% South Korea 26,831,897 24%
Japan 48,046,656 12% Singapore 18,540,143 10% Norway 14,541,819 13%
Malaysia 33,730,387 9% Canada 18,175,102 9% Denmark 10,031,801 9%
France 21,931,382 6% China 16,993,907 9% Mexico 4,021,229 4%
Norway 21,834,486 6% Austria 13,242,438 7% Austria 3,693,976 3%
Mexico 21,258,031 5% Italy 8,003,638 4% Netherlands 2,696,723 2%
Canada 12,903,283 3% France 7,519,686 4% Germany 2,395,929 2%
Austria 11,242,916 3% Norway 7,480,253 4% Canada 1,843,560 2%
Israel 10,805,965 3% Netherlands 4,926,542 3% United Kingdom 1,610,859 1%
Rest of the World 23,712,431 6% Rest of the World 25,099,268 13% Rest of the World 4,311,522 4%
Total 395,646,966 100% Total 194,443,120 100% Total 110,964,491 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Ultrasound Machines (9018.12.0000) by Volume (Unit)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation
South Korea 208,050 37% Singapore 79,922 42% Japan 3,683 22%
Malaysia 117,261 21% South Korea 29,051 15% South Korea 3,081 19%
France 73,227 13% China 20,933 11% Mexico 2,322 14%
China 66,709 12% United Kingdom 16,780 9% Denmark 2,120 13%
Japan 19,432 3% Malaysia 13,643 7% Netherlands 1,842 11%
Taiwan 18,277 3% Japan 12,102 6% Canada 1,146 7%
Mexico 12,273 2% France 4,491 2% Norway 666 4%
Denmark 9,307 2% Mexico 2,781 1% Germany 318 2%
United Kingdom 7,366 1% Canada 2,669 1% United Kingdom 296 2%
India 6,069 1% Taiwan 1,651 1% India 243 1%
Rest of the World 17,685 3% Rest of the World 6,937 4% Rest of the World 717 4%
Total 555,656 100% Total 190,960 100% Total 16,434 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Endoscopes (9018.19.4000) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Japan 687,143,667 71% Japan 408,792,075 78% Japan 244,710,990 84%
Germany 76,690,789 8% Germany 38,660,822 7% Germany 25,004,010 9%
Israel 51,960,605 5% Ireland 25,830,648 5% United Kingdom 7,386,738 3%
China 28,627,553 3% China 7,540,606 1% Sweden 6,943,932 2%
Canada 28,424,647 3% United Kingdom 5,867,348 1% Norway 2,470,677 1%
Mexico 13,801,026 1% Israel 5,864,410 1% Switzerland 859,137 0%
United Kingdom 13,656,834 1% Mexico 5,686,110 1% Israel 840,950 0%
Vietnam 11,648,290 1% South Korea 2,822,135 1% Canada 815,366 0%
Thailand 10,273,208 1% Finland 2,718,856 1% Ireland 760,098 0%
Czech Republic 9,050,237 1% Thailand 2,550,000 0% Spain 569,685 0%
Rest of the World 36,410,590 4% Rest of the World 16,333,604 3% Rest of the World 1,866,247 1%
Total 967,687,446 100% Total 522,666,614 100% Total 292,227,830 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Patient Monitoring Systems (9018.19.5500) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Japan 687,143,667 71% Japan 408,792,075 78% Japan 244,710,990 84%
Germany 76,690,789 8% Germany 38,660,822 7% Germany 25,004,010 9%
Israel 51,960,605 5% Ireland 25,830,648 5% United Kingdom 7,386,738 3%
China 28,627,553 3% China 7,540,606 1% Sweden 6,943,932 2%
Canada 28,424,647 3% United Kingdom 5,867,348 1% Norway 2,470,677 1%
Mexico 13,801,026 1% Israel 5,864,410 1% Switzerland 859,137 0%
United Kingdom 13,656,834 1% Mexico 5,686,110 1% Israel 840,950 0%
Vietnam 11,648,290 1% South Korea 2,822,135 1% Canada 815,366 0%
Thailand 10,273,208 1% Finland 2,718,856 1% Ireland 760,098 0%
Czech Republic 9,050,237 1% Thailand 2,550,000 0% Spain 569,685 0%
Rest of the World 36,410,590 4% Rest of the World 16,333,604 3% Rest of the World 1,866,247 1%
Total 967,687,446 100% Total 522,666,614 100% Total 292,227,830 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Ventilators and Other Oxygen Therapy Equipment (9019.20.0000) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Singapore 919,514,568 34% Australia 373,175,399 29% Mexico 105,160,948 31%
China 449,464,657 17% Mexico 305,683,459 23% Ireland 63,011,992 18%
Mexico 413,691,914 15% China 204,273,285 16% Australia 36,344,533 11%
Australia 256,030,776 9% New Zealand 99,741,082 8% Sweden 28,780,950 8%
New Zealand 117,354,100 4% Singapore 57,072,576 4% New Zealand 17,581,910 5%
Sweden 90,193,501 3% Ireland 42,710,580 3% Germany 17,360,441 5%
Ireland 79,207,770 3% Germany 34,968,403 3% Italy 10,851,326 3%
Germany 62,829,431 2% United Kingdom 32,703,362 2% Malaysia 10,739,064 3%
Switzerland 58,287,916 2% Canada 25,116,165 2% China 10,398,954 3%
Malaysia 57,848,627 2% Taiwan 24,773,861 2% Canada 7,986,373 2%
Rest of the World 192,658,895 7% Rest of the World 108,837,344 8% Rest of the World 34,624,541 10%
Total 2,697,082,155 100% Total 1,309,055,516 100% Total 342,841,032 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Personal Protective Equipment by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
China 4,789,919,170 47% China 2,573,442,752 51% China 287,166,310 30%
Malaysia 1,650,146,772 16% Malaysia 766,280,823 15% Mexico 235,726,306 25%
Mexico 839,339,263 8% Thailand 444,628,937 9% Taiwan 115,319,905 12%
Thailand 718,162,744 7% Mexico 339,641,507 7% Malaysia 88,458,679 9%
Canada 381,046,610 4% Canada 182,692,449 4% Honduras 39,024,211 4%
Vietnam 249,745,714 2% Taiwan 124,523,426 2% Canada 29,982,771 3%
Taiwan 234,608,334 2% Indonesia 97,156,765 2% France 26,101,202 3%
India 158,015,459 2% Honduras 79,030,904 2% Thailand 15,607,020 2%
Indonesia 152,155,098 1% Germany 73,261,590 1% United Kingdom 15,465,478 2%
Germany 93,837,033 1% India 39,437,272 1% Indonesia 12,059,194 1%
Rest of the World 890,445,604 9% Rest of the World 303,205,172 6% Rest of the World 92,979,365 10%
Total 10,157,421,801 100% Total 5,023,301,597 100% Total 957,890,441 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Aprons and Gowns by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
China 394,217,278 45% China 199,947,785 75% China 72,656,172 75%
Canada 146,455,529 17% Canada 39,026,866 15% Taiwan 4,323,011 4%
India 68,081,499 8% Mexico 4,060,177 2% Mexico 3,983,834 4%
Vietnam 64,258,956 7% Hong Kong 3,630,402 1% Hong Kong 2,899,286 3%
Pakistan 40,116,024 5% Taiwan 3,181,853 1% Canada 2,216,622 2%
Mexico 37,643,170 4% Thailand 2,891,590 1% South Korea 2,134,193 2%
Cambodia 22,696,136 3% Italy 2,890,597 1% Italy 1,211,157 1%
Taiwan 14,609,752 2% Vietnam 1,985,498 1% Philippines 784,579 1%
Indonesia 13,603,980 2% Lithuania 1,351,282 1% France 767,985 1%
Guatemala 8,618,654 1% France 1,150,550 0% Sweden 750,569 1%
Rest of World 73,399,683 8% Rest of World 6,182,272 2% Rest of World 5,002,290 5%
Total 883,700,661 100% Total 266,298,872 100% Total 96,729,698 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Aprons and Gowns by Volume (Dozens)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation
China 106,501,885 89% China 64,381,058 95% China 25,474,017 85%
Vietnam 2,830,336 2% Thailand 1,221,750 2% Hong Kong 2,058,656 7%
India 2,517,973 2% Hong Kong 996,082 1% Taiwan 492,922 2%
Cambodia 2,042,470 2% Taiwan 584,575 1% Mexico 447,509 1%
Pakistan 1,683,581 1% Mexico 132,656 0% South Korea 431,400 1%
Mexico 516,897 0% Vietnam 117,630 0% Italy 293,364 1%
Taiwan 475,952 0% Italy 67,808 0% Switzerland 168,466 1%
Burma 427,490 0% South Korea 39,128 0% Thailand 146,509 0%
Thailand 364,919 0% Egypt 36,335 0% Honduras 128,522 0%
Canada 273,010 0% Indonesia 34,471 0% Philippines 113,294 0%
Rest of the World 1,667,121 1% Rest of the World 209,947 0% Rest of the World 389,832 1%
Total 119,301,634 100% Total 67,821,440 100% Total 30,144,491 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Gloves by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
Malaysia 1,636,351,961 48% Malaysia 757,294,454 36% China 125,203,731 38%
China 968,699,496 28% China 727,530,388 35% Malaysia 86,424,307 26%
Thailand 554,709,370 16% Thailand 414,378,024 20% Taiwan 51,891,839 16%
Indonesia 133,839,928 4% Indonesia 90,115,567 4% Canada 14,562,730 4%
Sri Lanka 48,856,514 1% Sri Lanka 34,301,383 2% Thailand 12,703,424 4%
Vietnam 39,983,252 1% Pakistan 9,067,088 0% Indonesia 11,511,608 3%
Pakistan 17,887,281 1% Taiwan 8,839,995 0% United Arab Em 5,240,846 2%
South Korea 5,474,283 0% Vietnam 7,387,623 0% Belgium 4,834,392 1%
Taiwan 5,233,797 0% Mexico 6,714,319 0% Sri Lanka 4,158,679 1%
Guatemala 2,353,410 0% Colombia 4,584,149 0% Mexico 3,271,499 1%
Rest of World 17,513,772 1% Rest of World 14,796,549 1% Rest of World 12,530,172 4%
Total 3,430,903,064 100% Total 2,075,009,539 100% Total 332,333,227 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Gloves by Volume (Dozen Pairs)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation
China 2,691,291,220 43% China 1,613,588,100 50% China 275,436,206 51%
Malaysia 2,577,501,552 42% Malaysia 943,014,505 29% Taiwan 97,770,844 18%
Thailand 613,777,726 10% Thailand 472,690,951 15% Malaysia 71,805,469 13%
Indonesia 213,290,574 3% Indonesia 160,765,621 5% Thailand 25,327,097 5%
Vietnam 66,178,365 1% Taiwan 18,276,211 1% Indonesia 24,337,404 5%
Sri Lanka 17,809,904 0% Vietnam 14,389,649 0% Canada 20,394,716 4%
Taiwan 4,276,701 0% Sri Lanka 12,112,853 0% Belgium 7,429,906 1%
Hong Kong 2,410,565 0% Colombia 10,331,921 0% Hong Kong 3,747,009 1%
India 1,754,830 0% Hong Kong 4,648,481 0% India 3,520,619 1%
South Korea 1,547,515 0% South Korea 1,838,962 0% South Korea 1,079,785 0%
Rest of the World 7,665,792 0% Rest of the World 4,466,608 0% Rest of the World 4,020,324 1%
Total 6,197,504,744 100% Total 3,256,123,862 100% Total 534,869,379 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Face Masks (6307.90.9889) by Value (USD)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation Sources Value Participation
China 2,319,451,193 72% China 1,046,568,422 71% N/A N/A N/A
Mexico 293,579,032 9% Mexico 161,682,578 11% N/A N/A N/A
Canada 109,980,688 3% Canada 44,710,166 3% N/A N/A N/A
Vietnam 83,285,631 3% India 36,156,852 2% N/A N/A N/A
India 83,215,737 3% Taiwan 33,807,590 2% N/A N/A N/A
Taiwan 56,208,998 2% Thailand 15,180,224 1% N/A N/A N/A
Pakistan 26,037,908 1% Vietnam 14,190,569 1% N/A N/A N/A
Thailand 21,079,299 1% United Kingdom 12,822,696 1% N/A N/A N/A
Japan 19,046,809 1% Pakistan 12,054,734 1% N/A N/A N/A
Germany 18,898,225 1% Germany 9,043,868 1% N/A N/A N/A
Rest of World 185,022,065 6% Rest of World 80,519,706 5% Rest of World N/A N/A
Total 3,215,805,585 100% Total 1,466,737,405 100% Total N/A N/A
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Imports of Face Masks (6307.90.9889) by Volume (Units)
2019 2009 1999
Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation Sources Volume Participation
China 4,488,157,255 69% China 2,598,124,878 64% N/A N/A N/A
Mexico 696,544,156 11% Mexico 975,892,655 24% N/A N/A N/A
Japan 246,219,460 4% Thailand 120,392,058 3% N/A N/A N/A
Canada 245,886,564 4% Taiwan 49,018,724 1% N/A N/A N/A
India 196,749,251 3% India 42,476,021 1% N/A N/A N/A
Thailand 146,747,975 2% Canada 37,798,706 1% N/A N/A N/A
Vietnam 105,189,436 2% Colombia 35,122,968 1% N/A N/A N/A
Israel 72,936,684 1% Pakistan 25,324,898 1% N/A N/A N/A
Taiwan 52,179,062 1% Indonesia 19,920,989 0% N/A N/A N/A
Pakistan 48,555,747 1% South Korea 18,636,706 0% N/A N/A N/A
Rest of the World 172,385,355 3% Rest of the World 125,634,467 3% Rest of the World N/A N/A
Total 6,471,550,945 100% Total 4,048,343,070 100% Total 0 0%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

TOP SOURCES OF KEY MEDICAL DRUGS TO THE UNITED STATES, 2019

Top Source of U.S. Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 95,125,143 23%
Mexico 77,492,876 19%
China 39,462,531 9%
Canada 39,440,557 9%
Italy 28,756,717 7%
Germany 21,037,695 5%
United Kingdom 13,893,620 3%
Israel 12,485,452 3%
Spain 11,867,480 3%
Ireland 11,109,211 3%
Rest of the World 64,953,243 16%
Total 415,624,525 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Drugs Sold in Measured Doses for Retail by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 82,430,392 24%
Mexico 77,434,205 22%
China 30,404,432 9%
Canada 29,080,578 8%
Italy 24,221,113 7%
Germany 14,393,453 4%
United Kingdom 11,529,728 3%
Spain 10,488,655 3%
Ireland 9,667,305 3%
Israel 7,882,120 2%
Rest of the World 49,153,437 14%
Total 346,685,418 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission 

 

Top Sources of U.S. Anti-Infective Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 3,093,018 43%
Mexico 789,822 11%
Canada 780,679 11%
Singapore 398,201 6%
France 303,670 4%
United Kingdom 293,441 4%
Taiwan 216,549 3%
Croatia 183,488 3%
China 159,638 2%
Germany 157,739 2%
Rest of the World 833,891 12%
Total 7,210,136 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Cardiovascular Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 16,402,787 62%
Canada 3,253,518 12%
China 1,017,985 4%
Singapore 784,913 3%
Czech Republic 767,832 3%
Italy 531,616 2%
Israel 461,786 2%
France 419,683 2%
Bangladesh 317,996 1%
Portugal 312,855 1%
Rest of the World 2,333,623 9%
Total 26,604,594 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Painkillers by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
China 10,558,922 50%
India 5,588,839 26%
Canada 2,067,920 10%
Japan 786,779 4%
Germany 555,001 3%
Italy 261,707 1%
Israel 256,285 1%
Spain 212,678 1%
Sweden 188,958 1%
Czech Republic 128,347 1%
Rest of the World 673,040 3%
Total 21,278,476 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Sedatives by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 9,851,067 52%
Austria 2,749,435 15%
Italy 1,782,049 9%
Sweden 1,731,923 9%
Israel 675,319 4%
Norway 482,706 3%
Czech Republic 309,118 2%
China 191,250 1%
Switzerland 161,641 1%
France 157,379 1%
Rest of the World 830,443 4%
Total 18,922,330 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Diuretics by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 1,480,688 84%
Canada 129,007 7%
Czech Republic 86,315 5%
Croatia 61,784 3%
Italy 5,347 0%
Israel 3,627 0%
N/A N/A N/A
N/A N/A N/A
N/A N/A N/A
N/A N/A N/A
Rest of the World N/A N/A
Total Imports 1,766,768 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Cough & Cold Medicines by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
Canada 20,093,636 37%
China 13,631,559 25%
Switzerland 7,155,109 13%
United Kingdom 6,969,467 13%
Mexico 4,699,574 9%
India 992,727 2%
Spain 504,460 1%
Italy 368,045 1%
Germany 106,705 0%
Pakistan 23,171 0%
Rest of the World 77,802 0%
Total Imports 54,622,255 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Drugs Affecting the Respiratory System, Eyes, and Ears by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
Ireland 3,400,505 31%
France 1,380,423 13%
India 1,371,653 13%
Canada 905,788 8%
South Africa 766,990 7%
Belgium 597,824 5%
Germany 484,378 4%
China 476,962 4%
Switzerland 348,894 3%
Israel 302,786 3%
Rest of the World 885,830 8%
Total Imports 10,922,033 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

 

Top Sources of U.S. Antibiotics by Volume, 2019 (kg)

Sources Volume Participation
India 4,559,779 27%
Italy 2,604,267 16%
Jordan 1,858,484 11%
China 1,766,479 11%
Canada 1,076,038 6%
Switzerland 962,067 6%
Germany 760,658 5%
United Kingdom 607,031 4%
Brazil 515,999 3%
Austria 465,984 3%
Rest of the World 1,604,320 10%
Total Imports 16,781,106 100%
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission

U.S. Import Reliance on China & India for Particular Drugs by Volume, 2019

U.S. EXPORTS OF CRITICAL MEDICAL GOODS TO CHINA AND THE WORLD BY MONTH, JAN. 2019 – SEPT. 2020

U.S. EXPORTS OF CRITICAL MEDICAL GOODS TO CHINA BY MONTH
U.S. EXPORTS OF FACE MASKS TO CHINA BY MONTH
U.S. EXPORTS OF PPE TO CHINA BY MONTH
US Exports Disinfectants and Sterilizers to China
US Exports Ventilators and Oxygenation Products to china
US Exports of medicines to china
US Exports test kits to china
US Exports of face masks to the world

Data Notes

Data sourced from the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. International Trade Commission. The identification of critical medical goods was based on the U.S. International Trade Commission study “COVID-19 Related Goods: U.S. Imports and Tariffs (Updated)”, which used the World Customs Organization’s (WCO) reports “HS Classification Reference for Covid-19 Medical Supplies” and the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Customs Organization (WCO) report  “HS classification reference for Covid-19 medical supplies”.

The Commission’s report identifies the 10-digit codes of COVID-19 related goods in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) for merchandise imported into the United States. Specifically, the study is based on the June 2020 (revision 13) version of the HTS. It is worth noting that the government data reporting U.S. exports does not use the same version of the HTS. Therefore, with respect to exports, in some instances and whenever possible, it was necessary to use different HS codes to identify U.S. exports of Covid-19 related goods when the codes mentioned in the USITC report did not match export data statistics, provided that the description was identical or sufficiently similar so as to confirm that the older version had the same scope as the one used by the USITC for import data.

In some instances, volume data was not available at the needed level of detail or was accounted for in different units of measurement by bilateral trade relationship. The 1999-2019 data is not adjusted for inflation because doing so is not necessary to compare the relative rank of import sources. In contrast, the 2019-2020 monthly data, which measures growth in value over time, is adjusted for inflation to base month July 2020 so that the measurement is growth in real terms.

The table below contains the HTS codes used to retrieve recent import and export data of COVID-19 related goods. In addition, it contains the HTS codes used to identify the different subcategories of COVID-19 related goods, such as medical devices or personal protective equipment.

Critical Medical Goods Categories HTS-10 Exports HTS Codes (when different) USITC Category for subset of COVID-19 related goods in the HTS-10 HTS-10 statistical reporting number description Example of COVID-19 related product within the HTS-10
Test kits 3002.15.0000 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Immunological products, put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale Certain diagnostic reagents and test kits
3821.00.0000 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Prepared culture media for development of microorganisms Viral transport medium
3822.00.5090 3822.00.0000; 3822.00.0002 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Composite diagnostic or laboratory reagents other than those of heading 3002 or 3006, not elsewhere specified or included Certain COVID-19 test kits and reagents
8421.19.0000 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Centrifuges, including centrifugal dryers, not elsewhere specified or included Centrifuges
8543.10.0000 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Particle accelerators, not elsewhere specified or included Particle accelerators
9027.50.4015 9027.50.5000; 9027.50.9000 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Other chemical analysis instruments and apparatus using optical radiations Blood analyzers
9027.80.2500 COVID-19 test kits/testing instruments Nuclear magnetic resonances instruments and apparatus (except those of heading 9018) COVID-19 diagnostic test instruments and apparatus
Disinfectants and Sterilization Products 2207.10.6090 Disinfectants and sterilization products Ethyl alcohol, undenatured, of an alcoholic strength by volume of 80 percent volume or higher, for nonbeverage purposes, excluding for fuel use Alcohol solution (at least 80 percent alcoholic strength)
2208.90.8000 NA Disinfectants and sterilization products Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of less than 80 percent volume, not elsewhere specified or included Alcohol solution (less than 80 percent alcoholic strength)
2828.90.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Hypochlorites, chlorites, and hypobromites, not elsewhere specified or included Bleach (sodium hypochlorite), non-retail sale
2847.00.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Hydrogen peroxide, whether or not solidified with urea Hydrogen peroxide in bulk
2905.12.0050 Disinfectants and sterilization products Propan-2-ol Isopropyl alcohol
3004.90.9210 Disinfectants and sterilization products Anti-infective medicaments put up in measured doses or forms or packings for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Chlorhexidine; hydrogen peroxide presented as a medicament; imipenem and cilastatin; lopinavir; oseltamivir; povidone-iodine; remdesivir; ribavirin; ritonavir
3402.19.1000 NA Disinfectants and sterilization products Organic surface active agents, other, aromatic or modified aromatic Wipes (disinfecting or antibacterial), with aromatic or modified aromatic organic surfactants, non-retail sale
3402.20.1100 NA Disinfectants and sterilization products Preparations containing any aromatic or modified aromatic surface-active agent, put up for retail sale Wipes (disinfecting or antibacterial), with aromatic or modified surfactants, retail sale
3402.20.5100 Disinfectants and sterilization products Surface-active, washing and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap, put up for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Bleach (sodium hypochlorite), retail sale
3808.94.1000 NA Disinfectants and sterilization products Disinfectants containing any aromatic or modified aromatic disinfectant Disinfectants (containing aromatics), including certain disinfecting wipes
3808.94.5000 NA Disinfectants and sterilization products Disinfectants, not elsewhere specified or included Disinfectants (other), including certain disinfecting wipes
3824.99.9295 3824.99.9270 Disinfectants and sterilization products Chemical products and preparations and residual products of the chemical or allied industries, not elsewhere specified or included Hand sanitizer
3824.99.9297 3824.99.9270 Disinfectants and sterilization products Chemical products and preparations and residual products of the chemical or allied industries, not elsewhere specified or included Hand sanitizer
5603.12.0010 5603.12.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Nonwovens, of man-made filaments, weighing more than 25 g/m2 but not more than 70 g/m2, impregnated, coated or covered with material other than or in addition to rubber, plastics, wood pulp or glass fibers; “imitation suede” Disinfectant wipes
5603.92.0010 5603.92.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Nonwovens, other than of man-made filaments, weighing more than 25 g/m2 but not more than 70 g/m2, impregnated, coated or covered with material other than or in addition to rubber, plastics, wood pulp or glass fibers; “imitation suede” Wipes with isopropyl alcohol (e.g., alcohol prep pads)
8419.20.0010 8419.20.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Medical or surgical sterilizers Medical or surgical sterilizers
8419.20.0020 8419.20.0000 Disinfectants and sterilization products Laboratory sterilizers Laboratory sterilizers
Ventilators and Oxygenation Products 9018.19.9550 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Electro-diagnostic apparatus, used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, not elsewhere specified or included Fingertip pulse oximeter (for use by medical professionals)
9018.39.0040 9018.39.0030 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Bougies, drains and sondes, and parts and accessories Intubation equipment; parts and accessories
9018.90.6000 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Electro-surgical instruments and appliances and parts and accessories Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
9019.20.0000 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, artificial respiration or other therapeutic respiration apparatus; parts and accessories Medical ventilators (artificial respiration apparatus); extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) units; bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPap or BPap) units; oxygen concentrators; oxygen humidifiers for oxygen therapy applications; oxygen delivery devices to supply oxygen from the device to the patient; flow splitters
9026.80.4000 9026.80.0000 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Heat meters incorporating liquid supply meters, and anemometers Flowmeter, Thorpe tube for oxygen 0-15L/min
9029.20.4080 9029.20.5000 Oxygen therapy equipment and pulse oximeters Speedometers and tachometers (excluding bicycle speedometers), not for use in civil aircraft Fingertip pulse oximeters
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 3926.20.1010 Personal protective equipment Gloves, seamless, surgical and medical, of plastic Seamless surgical and medical gloves
3926.20.1020 3926.20.1060 Personal protective equipment Gloves, seamless, except surgical and medical, disposable, of plastic Seamless disposable gloves
3926.20.9010 3926.20.9050 Personal protective equipment Aprons, of plastic Plastic aprons
3926.20.9050 Personal protective equipment Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of plastic, not elsewhere specified or included Protective unisex garments, such as medical and surgical gowns; plastic sleeve protectors
4015.11.0110 NA Personal protective equipment Surgical gloves, of natural rubber, other than hard rubber Surgical gloves (natural rubber)
4015.11.0150 4015.11.0000 Personal protective equipment Surgical gloves, of vulcanized rubber other than hard rubber, not elsewhere specified or included Surgical gloves
4015.19.0510 NA Personal protective equipment Medical gloves, mittens and mitts (except surgical) of natural rubber, other than hard rubber Medical gloves (natural rubber)
4015.19.0550 NA Personal protective equipment Medical gloves, of vulcanized rubber other than hard rubber, not elsewhere specified or included Medical gloves
4015.19.1010 4015.11.0100 Personal protective equipment Seamless, disposable gloves, of vulcanized rubber other than hard rubber Other seamless rubber gloves
4015.90.0010 NA Personal protective equipment Aprons, of vulcanized rubber other hard rubber Protective aprons
4015.90.0050 4015.90.0000 Personal protective equipment Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, excluding aprons, for all purposes, of vulcanized rubber other than hard rubber, not elsewhere specified or included Protective unisex garments made of rubber sheeting, textile reinforced rubber or textile backed rubber.
4818.50.0020 Personal protective equipment Articles of apparel and clothing accessories of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibers Hospital/medical gowns or scrubs
4823.90.8600 NA Personal protective equipment Articles of uncoated paper or paperboard or of webs of cellulose fiber, cut to size or shape, not elsewhere specified or included Paper shoe covers
6113.00.1012 6113.00.0012 Personal protective equipment Garments, knitted or crocheted, outer surface impregnated, coated, covered, or laminated with rubber or plastic material, surface completely obscured Unisex surgical gowns
6116.10.6500 6116.10.0000 Personal protective equipment Other gloves, knitted or crocheted, containing less than 50 percent by weight of cotton, man-made fibers or other textile fibers, or any combination thereof, no fourchettes, impregnated Gloves impregnated or covered with plastics or rubber
6210.10.2000 6210.10.0000 Personal protective equipment Garments, made up of fabrics of heading 5602 or 5603: of fabrics formed on a base of paper or covered or lined with paper Protective garments
6210.10.5000 6210.10.0000 Personal protective equipment Garments, made up of fabrics of heading 5602 or 5603: nonwoven disposable apparel designed for use in hospitals, clinics, laboratories and other areas Disposable garments for use in hospitals, clinics, laboratories, etc.
6210.10.9010 6210.10.0000 Personal protective equipment Garments, made up of fabrics of heading 5602 or 5603: coveralls and overalls, not knitted, of impregnated fabric Protective garments (coveralls and overalls)
6210.10.9040 6210.10.0000 Personal protective equipment Garments, made up of fabrics of heading 5602 or 5603: not knit felt and non-woven fabric, except coveralls and overalls, of impregnated fabric Protective garments
6210.50.5555 6210.50.1000; 6210.50.2000 Personal protective equipment Women’s or girls’ not knit man-made fiber other apparel, impregnated fabric not elsewhere specified or included Unisex surgical gowns
6211.42.1081 6211.42.0000 Personal protective equipment Women’s or girls’ other apparel, of cotton, not knitted not elsewhere specified or included Patient gowns; unisex surgical gowns
6211.43.1091 6211.43.0000 Personal protective equipment Women’s or girls’ other apparel, of man-made fibers, not knitted, not elsewhere specified or included Patient gowns; unisex surgical gowns
6216.00.5420 6216.00.5000 Personal protective equipment Gloves, mittens and mitts: of man-made fibers: no fourchettes, sidewalls, less than 36 percent of wool or fine animal hair Gloves
6307.90.9889 6307.90.9995 Personal protective equipment Other made-up articles, not elsewhere specified or included N95 particulate respirators; other respirators; other textile face-masks, including surgical and disposable masks; shoe covers; textile face masks with plastic face shield
6505.00.0100 Personal protective equipment Hair-nets, any material, whether or not lined or trimmed Disposable hair nets
6505.00.8015 Personal protective equipment Nonwoven disposable headgear without peaks or visors of manmade fibers Disposable headgear
6505.00.9089 6505.00.8600 Personal protective equipment Hats and other headgear, knitted or crocheted, or made up of lace, felt or other textile fabric, in the piece, whether or not lined or trimmed, not elsewhere specified or included Other headgear
9004.90.0000 Personal protective equipment Spectacles, goggles and the like, corrective, protective, not elsewhere specified or included Protective goggles
9020.00.6000 9020.00.8000 Personal protective equipment Other breathing appliances and gas masks Gas masks with mechanical parts or replaceable filters for protection against biological agents; masks incorporating eye protection or facial shields; powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs)
9020.00.9000 9020.00.8000 Personal protective equipment Parts and accessories for breathing appliances and gas masks Parts of gas masks and masks incorporating eye protection or facial shields; parts of powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs)
Gas & Face Masks with Filters 6307.90.9889 6307.90.9995 Personal protective equipment Other made-up articles, not elsewhere specified or included N95 particulate respirators; other respirators; other textile facemasks, including surgical and disposable masks; shoe covers; textile face masks with plastic face shield
Pharmaceutical products 2501.00.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Salt (including table salt and denatured salt) and pure sodium chloride, whether or not in aqueous solution or containing added anti-caking or free-flowing agents; sea water Saline solution
2907.19.8000 2907.19.9000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other monophenols Propofol
2922.29.2700 2922.29.0000; 2922.29.9000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Amino-naphthols and other amino-phenols and their derivatives used as drugs Dobutamine
2922.50.1300 NA Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Isoetharine hydrochloride; isoxsuprine hydrochloride; nylidrin hydrochloride; phenylephrine hydrochloride; salbutamol (albuterol); and terbutaline sulfate Salbutamol (albuterol)
2923.90.0100 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Quaternary ammonium salts and hydroxides, whether or not chemically defined, other Suxamethonium chloride
2924.29.6210 2924.29 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Acetaminophen Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)
2924.29.6250 2924.29 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other aromatic cyclic amides and derivatives for use as drugs Metoclopramide; oseltamivir
2925.29.2000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Aromatic imines and their derivatives; salts thereof, for use as drugs Chlorhexidine
2930.90.9135 NA Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other non-aromatic organo-sulfur compounds used as drugs Cilastatin
2932.19.5100 2932.19.0000; 2932.19.0002 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Non-aromatic compounds containing an unfused furan ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the ring Ranitidine
2933.29.2000 2933.29.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Aromatic or modified aromatic drugs containing an unfused imidazole ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the structure Ondansetron
2933.33.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Alfentanil (INN), anileridine (INN), bezitramide (INN), bromazepam (INN), difenoxin (INN), diphenoxylate (INN), dipipanone (INN), fentanyl (INN), ketobemidone (INN), methylphenidate (INN), pentazocine (INN), pethidine (INN), pethidine (INN) intermediate A, phencyclidine (INN) (PCP,PE), phenoperidine (INN), pipradrol (INN), piritramide (INN), propiram (INN) and trimeperidine (INN); salts thereof Fentanyl
2933.39.3100 NA Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Antidepressants, tranquilizers and other psychotherapeutic agents with an unfused pyridine ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the structure Haloperidol
2933.39.4100 2933.39 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Drugs containing an unfused pyridine ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the structure, not elsewhere specified or included Omeprazole; vecuronium bromide;
2933.49.2600 2933.49.2250 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Drugs containing a quinoline or isoquinoline ring-system (whether or not hydrogenated) not further fused, not elsewhere specified or included Atracurium besylate (atracurium besilate)
2933.59.3600 NA Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other aromatic or modified aromatic anti-infective agents Lopinavir
2933.79.0800 2933.79 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Lactam products described in additional U.S. note 3 to section VI, not elsewhere specified or included Milrinone
2933.91.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Alprazolam(inn), camazepam (inn), chlordiazepoxide (inn), clonazepam (inn), clorazepate & other heterocyclic compounds with nitro atom(s) only Lorazepam; midazolam
2933.99.5300 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Cardiovascular drugs, not elsewhere specified or included Levosimendan
2934.10.1000 2934.10.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Aromatic or modified aromatic products described in U.S. note 3 to section VI containing an unfused thiazole ring (whether or not hydrogenated) Ritonavir
2934.30.2300 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Antidepressants, tranquilizers and other psychotherapeutic agents Levomepromazine
2934.99.3000 2934.99 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Aromatic or modified aromatic heterocyclic compounds used as drugs, not elsewhere specified or included Remdesivir
2934.99.4700 2934.99 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Heterocyclic compounds used as drugs, not elsewhere specified or included Ribavirin; sulbactam;
2937.19.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Polypeptide, protein and glycoprotein hormones, their derivatives and structural analogues, not elsewhere specified or included Vasopressin/vasopressin injection
2937.21.0020 2937.21.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone
2937.29.9095 2937.29.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Steroidal hormones, their derivatives and structural analogues, not elsewhere specified or included Methylprednisolone
2937.90.0500 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Epinephrine Epinephrine
2937.90.2000 2937.90.1500 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Catecholamine hormones, their derivatives and structural analogues, not elsewhere specified or included Norepinephrine
2939.11.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Concentrates of poppy straw; buprenorphine (INN); codeine, dihydrocodeine (INN), ethylmorphine, etorphine (INN), heroin, hydrocodone (INN), hydromorphone (INN), morphine, nicomorphine (INN), oxycodone (INN), oxymorphone (INN), pholcodine (INN), thebacon (INN) and thebaine; salts thereof Codeine; morphine
2939.19.5000 2939.19.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Vegetable alkaloids, natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters, and other derivatives, not elsewhere specified or included Morphine glucuronide
2939.79.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Vegetable alkaloids, natural or reproduced by synthesis, their salts and other derivatives, not elsewhere specified or included Atropine methonitrate; atropine oxide; ipratropium bromide
2941.10.1000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Ampicillin and its salts Ampicillin
2941.10.5000 2941.10.2000; 2941.10.6000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other penicillins and their derivatives with a penicillanic acid structure; salts thereof Amoxicillin; piperacillin; tazobactam
2941.30.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Tetracyclines and their derivatives; salts thereof Doxycycline
2941.90.1050 2941.90.6000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Natural antibiotics, not elsewhere specified or included Amphotericin B
2941.90.3000 2941.90.6000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Aromatic or modified aromatic antibiotics (excluding natural) Ceftazidime; vancomycin
2941.90.5000 2941.90.6000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other antibiotics (excluding natural, aromatic or modified aromatic antibiotics) Amikacin; azithromycin; ceftriaxone; clavulanic acid; meropenem; imipenem
3001.90.0190 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Heparin and its salts; other human or animal substances prepared for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, not elsewhere specified or included Enoxaparin; enoxaparin sodium; heparin sodium
3002.13.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Immunological products, unmixed, not put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale Interferon alfa
3002.14.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Immunological products, mixed, not put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale Mixed bulk immunologicals (medicines that trigger the immune system)
3002.19.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Blood fractions, not elsewhere specified or included Other immunologicals (medicines that trigger the immune system)
3002.20.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Vaccines for human medicine Human vaccines
3003.10.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments (excluding goods of 3002, 3005, or 3006) containing penicillins or derivatives thereof, or streptomycins or their derivatives Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid; ampicillin and sulbactam
3003.20.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments containing other antibiotics (excluding penicillins and streptomycins) Amikacin; amphotericin B; azithromycin; ceftazidime; ceftriaxone; doxycycline; imipenem and cilastatin; meropenem; piperacillin and tazobactam; vancomycin
3003.39.5000 3003.39.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other medicaments containing hormones or other products of heading 2937 but not containing antibiotics Epinephrine; hydrocortisone; methylprednisolone; norepinephrine; vasopressin/vasopressin injection
3003.49.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other medicaments containing alkaloids or derivatives thereof Atropine methonitrate; atropine oxide; codeine; ipratropium bromide;  morphine; morphine glucuronide
3003.90.0100 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other medicaments (excluding goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of two or more constituents which have been mixed together Acetaminophen (paracetamol); atracurium besylate (atracurium besilate); chlorhexidine; dobutamine; enoxaparin/enoxaparin sodium; fentanyl; haloperidol; heparin sodium; levomepromazine; levosimendan; lopinavir; lorazepam; metoclopramide; midazolam; milrinone; omeprazole; ondansetron; oseltamivir; povidone-iodine; propofol; ranitidine; remdesivir; ribavirin; ritonavir; salbutamol (albuterol); suxamethonium chloride; vecuronium bromide
3004.10.5045 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Combination antibiotics containing penicillins or derivatives thereof, with a penicillanic acid structure, or streptomycins or their derivatives, not elsewhere specified or included Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid; ampicillin and sulbactam; piperacillin and tazobactam
3004.20.0060 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments containing other antibiotics, not elsewhere specified or included Amikacin; amphotericin B; azithromycin; ceftazidime; ceftriaxone; doxycycline; meropenem; vancomycin
3004.32.0000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments containing corticosteroid hormones, their derivatives and structural analogues Hydrocortisone; methylprednisolone
3004.39.0050 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments containing hormones or other products of heading 2937 but not containing antibiotics, not elsewhere specified or included Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; vasopressin/vasopressin injection
3004.49.0020 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Anticonvulsants, hypnotics and sedatives, in measured doses or in forms or packaging for retail sale Morphine glucuronide
3004.49.0040 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other medicaments primarily affecting the central nervous system, not elsewhere specified or included Atropine methonitrate; atropine oxide; codeine; fentanyl; morphine
3004.90.9220 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Cardiovascular medicaments put up in measured doses or in forms for retail sale Dobutamine; enoxaparin; enoxaparin sodium; levosimendan; milrinone
3004.90.9228 3004.90.9225 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Analgesics, antipyretics and nonhormonal anti-inflammatory agents, not elsewhere specified or included Acetaminophen (paracetamol)
3004.90.9230 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Anticonvulsants, hypnotics and sedatives, primarily affecting central nervous system, put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale Midazolam; propofol
3004.90.9235 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Antidepressants, tranquilizers and other psychotherapeutic agents, primarily affecting the central nervous system, put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale Haloperidol; levomepromazine; lorazepam;
3004.90.9240 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments primarily affecting the central nervous system, put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Atracurium besylate (atracurium besilate); suxamethonium chloride; vecuronium bromide
3004.90.9260 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments primarily affecting the digestive system put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Metoclopramide; omeprazole; ondansetron; ranitidine
3004.90.9270 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments primarily affecting electrolytic, caloric or water balance, put up in measured doses or in forms or packing for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Ringer´s lactate; saline solution
3004.90.9285 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments primarily affecting the eyes, ears or respiratory system, put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Ipratropium bromide; salbutamol (albuterol)
3004.90.9290 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Medicaments consisting of mixed/unmixed products put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale, not elsewhere specified or included Heparin sodium; saline solution
3905.99.8000 Medicines (Pharmaceuticals) Other vinyl polymers in primary forms, not elsewhere specified or included Povidone-iodine

*Sometimes multiple product categories are found under one 6-digit HS code; in such circumstances, the 6-digit HS code has been measured once for both products.

With respect to pharmaceuticals, we used a broader selection of goods to show that the U.S. problematic overconcentration of sources of imports of medical drugs does not limit to COVID-19 related medicines. The table bellow contains the HTS codes used:

Medicine Categories HTS Codes
All Finished Medicines 3003, 3004
Finished Medicines Sold for Retail in Measured Doses 3004.90
Sulfonamides (Antibacterials) 3004.90.6005, 3004.90.9105, 3004.90.9205
Anti-Infective Medicines 3004.90.9210, 3004.90.9110, 3004.90.6010
Cardiovascular Medicines 3004.90.9220, 3004.90.9120, 3004.90.6020
Anti-Inflammatories & Painkillers 3004.90.6022, 3004.90.6024, 3004.90.6026, 3004.90.6028, 3004.90.9022, 3004.90.9024, 3004.90.9026, 3004.90.9028, 3004.90.9122, 3004.90.9124, 30049.09.126, 3004.90.9128, 3004.90.9222, 3004.90.9224, 3004.90.9226, 3004.90.9228
Sedatives 3004.90.6030, 3004.90.9230
Diuretics 3004.90.9265, 3004.90.6065, 3004.90.9165
Cough and Cold Medicines 3004.90.9176, 1704.9025, 3004.90.3000, 2106.90.39, 3004.90.6075, 3004.90.9276
Medicines Affecting Respiratory System, Eyes and Ears 3004.90.9185, 3004.90.9285
Antibiotics 3003.20, 3004.20

We are unsure why Jordan has such a significant share of antibiotic exports to the U.S., but it may be explained by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Jordan’s antibiotic sector as well as benefits conferred upon Jordan from the U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement. Ireland’s outsized role as the top import source for U.S. respiratory, ear, and eye medicine may be explained by actual production capacity in Ireland for these goods. Usually, Ireland ranks as a top import source by value, but not by volume. While the volume data set represents the amount of medicine that actually is sent to the United States, the value data set reflects the high prices of some medicines protected by monopoly patents as well as pharmaceutical corporations’ tax-avoidance strategies. This includes some firms’ corporate “inversions,” which are when firms relocate their legal “home” to countries with low tax rates and then charge their legal entities in their old base countries’ large patent-licensing fees, which then can be deducted from taxes as a business expense. Nevertheless, Ireland seems to actually be a significant volume producer of ear, eye, and respiratory medicine. It is unclear which subcategory Ireland exports to the U.S. as the tariff lines cannot be more specific. Finally, Mexico appears to have an outsized rank as the second largest import source by volume for all finished medicines.