Endnotes

1. See Public Citizen, The Border Betrayed (January 1996), Failure to Create U.S. Jobs (February 1997) and Fast Track to Unsafe Food (September 1997).

2. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

3. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

4. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

5. 12/03/98-12/06/98 Wall Street Journal/NBC News Survey conducted among 2,106 adults.

6. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

7. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

8. The Department of Labor has determined that there is a 2 :1 chance that laid-off workers will not find a better job. See "More Than 43 Million Jobs Lost, Reaching Every Walk of Life," New York Times, reprinted in National Times, December 1996. Since March 1998, 198,000 manufacturing jobs have been lost. The service sector has been able to absorb the layoffs, but the displaced workers are usually paid less than they had been in the manufacturing sector. See, Louis Uchitelle, "The Economy Grows. The Smokestacks Shrink," New York Times, 11/ 29/98.

9. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1996-1997 Jobs Outlook.

10. See Chicago Tribune, NAFTA at 5, Promises & Realities, November 29, 1998.

11. U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/www/deficit.html

12. The latest data available are the October 1998 trade balance figures. Year-end projections have been calculated by Rob Scott of the Economic Policy Institute. The U.S. trade deficit with Mexico for October 1998 is $13.2 billion and for Canada is $15 billion.

13. International Trade Commission, Production Sharing: The Use of U.S. Components and Materials in Foreign Assembly Operations, April 1997.

14. Rothstein, Jesse and Rob Scott. "NAFTA's Casualties," Economic Policy Institute: September 19, 1997.

15. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration data, 1993-1997.

16. U.S. Labor Department NAFTA-TAA data, as of December 18, 1998.

17. See, Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch, NAFTA's Broken Promises: Failure to Create U.S. Jobs, February 1997.

18. Dailey, Rickey. "NAFTA Gets Mixed Reviews," The Brownsville Herald, August 22, 1998.

19. "Border Counties Poorest in Nation," The Brownsville Herald, July 23, 1998.

20. New Mexico State University, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

21. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

22. USDA, Number of Farms and Net Cash Income by Size Class, 1993, 1997; "The fast track myth," Agri News, July 16, 1998, letter to the editor by Steve Suppan.

23. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, consumer prices for food in general have risen slightly since 1993. For fruit and vegetables ­ much of which is imported under NAFTA, consumer prices have risen 7% in real terms since 1993.

24. USDA, Number of Farms and Net Cash Income by Size Class, 1993 and 1997.

25. Export data from U.S. Aggregate Foreign Trade Data, U.S. Department of Commerce International Trade Administration. Canadian farm income data in Adrian Ewins, "Review Farm Policy Now, Demands Departing NFU Head," The Western Producer, 12/10/98.

26. Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI data on Pork: 1993-1998 (first 11 months of 1998). Also see, Barboza, David. "Farmers Are in Crisis as Hog Prices Collapse," The New York Times, 12/13/98.

27. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI data.

28. "Message Delivered Through Free Pork," The Western Producer, 12/10/98.

29. USDA, U.S. Total Agricultural Trade Balances with Individual Countries, 1991-97.

30. U.S. International Trade Commission, "Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the U.S. Economy and Industries: A Three Year Review," June 1997, pp. 6-65.

31. Florida Tomato Grower Association, interview with Wayne Hawkins.

32. Letter from Florida Tomato Exchange to Congressman Joe Scarborough, August 25, 1997.

33. Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI data, 1993-1997.

34. "NAFTA Increases Brussels Sprouts Woes," Financial Times, 11/30/98.

35. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, "US Agricultural Consumption Imports," January 1993 to December 1997.

36. Barboza, David, "Farmers Are in Crisis as Hog Prices Collapse." New York Times, 12/13/98.

37. October 8, 1998 Hearing in the House Agriculture Committee, "Agricultural Trade Issues with Canada."

38. Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI data on Pork 1993-November 1998. Barboza, David. "Farmers Are in Crisis as Hog Prices Collapse," The New York Times, 12/13/98.

39. As of July 1998, the U.S. has 720 million bushels of wheat in carry-out stocks. See Paul Menser, "Trading Blame: Idaho Farmers are struggling to see how NAFTA benefits their bottom line," Post Register, 7/12/98.

40. Paul Menser, "Trading Blame: Idaho Farmers are struggling to see how NAFTA benefits their bottom line," Post Register, 7/12/98, quoting Mike Lipscomb of the Idaho Rural Council.

41. Clinton Administration, Report on Environmental Issues, November 1993, ES-8.

42. United States-Mexico Chamber of Commerce, "The North American Free Trade Agreement at Four Years (sic): What it Means for the U.S. and Mexico," June 1998.

43. Twin Plant News, Maquila Scoreboard, September 1993 and May 1998.

44. Sources: International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID); Appleton & Associates. ICSID is the only investor-to-state arbitration facility that keeps a public listing of its cases. Under NAFTA, investors may also use the United Nations Center for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) rules to sue governments. Unlike ICSID, UNCITRAL is not an agreement nor an institution; it is merely a set of rules. There is thus no Secretariat to maintain publicly accessible records on each case. Thus, there is the distinct possibility that other NAFTA Chapter 11 cases exist, but have not been leaked to the public.

45. Metalclad Corp. v. Mexico (being arbitrated at the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID); Azinian, et. Al v. Mexico (being arbitrated at ICSID) and Waste, Inc. v. Mexico (ICSID).

46. Sun Belt, a California-based water importer, has filed a notice of intent with the Canadian government. Under NAFTA, a foreign investor that moves to sue a government must first submit a notice of intent to file claim and wait 90 days for the government to respond. If it has not settled the claim in 90 days, the investor becomes free to file it an investment tribunal. In recent press reports, Canada has indicated that it will fight rather than settle the Sun Belt claim. (See Heather Scoffield, "B.C. Water Export Ban Brings U.S. Lawsuit." The Globe and Mail, 12/9/98.) S.D. Myers v. Canada is being arbitrated under the UNCITRAL rules. Ethyl Corp. v. Canada was settled this summer.

47. EPA, HazTraks data; Interview with Joseph Schultes from the Environmental Protection Agency, December 14, 1998.

48. EPA, HazTraks data; Interview with Joseph Schultes from the Environmental Protection Agency, September 14, 1998; December 14, 1998.

49. Texas Department of Transportation; Interview with Major Lester Mills 12/14/98. Mexican trucks have a 45-48% forced-out-of-service rate as opposed to a 25% forced-out-of service rate for U.S. trucks.

50. U.S. HazTraks data; interview with Jack Schultes of EPA, 12/15/98. Data from 1991-1998.

51. U.S. HazTraks data; interview with Jack Schultes of EPA, 12/15/98. Data from 1991-1998.

52. "International help sought for Tijuana lead waste cleanup," San Diego Union-Tribune, October 21, 1998.

53. "International help sought for Tijuana lead waste cleanup," San Diego Union-Tribune, October 21, 1998.

54. "State panel allows discharge of Mexican sewage into ocean," San Diego Union-Tribune, October 15, 1998.

55. Twin Plant News, Maquila Scoreboard, September 1993 and May 1998.

56. Lori Saldana, "Tackling the Border Sewage Problem," San Diego Union-Tribune, October 14, 1998.

57. Lori Saldana, "Tackling the Border Sewage Problem," San Diego Union Tribune, October 14, 1998. Also see "The Trouble with Tijuana's Toxins," San Diego Union-Tribune, February 17, 1998.

58. "The Trouble with Tijuana's Toxins," San Diego Union-Tribune, February 17, 1998.

59. Twin Plant News; data from September 1993 to May 1998. Data provided by INEGI.

60. Brandon, Karen, "NAFTA at 5: Changes to the Landscape are Slow in Coming," Chicago Tribune, 11/29/98.

61. U.S. EPA, United States-Mexico Border Environmental Indicators 1997.

62. "Don't Place Hurdles in Front of NAFTA, Governors say," Valley Morning Star, June 27, 1998.

63. Texas Department of Transportation, Interview with Joe Cameron, October 1998.

64. "U.S. Border Towns Suffer From Post-Nafta Syndrome," The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1998.

65. "U.S. Border Towns Suffer From Post-Nafta Syndrome," The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1998.

66. U.S. EPA, United States-Mexico Border Environmental Indicators 1997.

67. U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. Total Agricultural Imports to Individual Countries, 1991-97; USDA data.

68. GAO, Food Safety: Federal Efforts to Ensure the Safety of Imported Foods are Inconsistent and Unreliable, 5/98.

69. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Examen de las Politicas Agricolas de Mexico, 1997.

70. "New Dangers Make Way to US Tables", Boston Globe, September 20, 1998.

71. See Public Citizen, Fast Track to Unsafe Food, September 1997.

72. USDA Economic Research Service, Agricultural Trade Update, 1998 data.

73. "Parsley Likely Cause of Shigellosis Outbreak," Star Tribune, 12/17/98; "State Health Officials Say They've Linked a Food-poisoning Outbreak at Last Summer's Goodhue County Fair to Cases in the Twin Cities," Food Poisoning Link (States News Service) 12/16/98.

74. Selcraig, Bruce, "From Great River to Foul Gutter: The Descent of the Rio Grande; A Testing Program by Mexican, American Students Confirms that the Artery is Being Choked to Death with Waste, Neglect," Los Angeles Times, 5/19/94.

75. Texas Department of Health; interview 12/15/98.

76. Texas Department of Health; data for the first 11 months of 1998.

77. Nusser, Nancy. "Border Still Polluted Despite U.S. Promises," Austin American-Statesman, 12/17/95.

78. Texas Department of Health Neural Tube Defect Surveillance and Intervention Project, Quarterly Report, April 1995.

79. Dr. Russel Larsen, Texas Department of Health; Interview, 12/15/98.

80. Wilkinson, et al. "Epistemiologic Study of Neural Tube and Other Birth Defects in the Lower Rio Grand Valley," The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, unpublished study, summer 1995.

81. Texas Department of Health; data for first 11 months of 1998.

82. INEGI, Estadisticas de la Industria Maquiladora de Exportacion.

83. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statics, Division of Foreign Labor Statistics, "Comparative Hourly Compensation Costs for Production Workers in Manufacturing Industries, Selected Countries: 1997."

84. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Foreign Labor Statistics data.

85. William R. Kline, Trade and Income Distribution, IIE, 1997.

86. Bronfenbrenner, Kate. Final Report: The Effects of Plant Closing or Threat of Plant Closing on the Right of Workers to Organize, Submitted to the Labor Secretariat of the North American Commission for Labor Cooperation, September 30, 1996.

87. Secretaria del Trabajo y Prevision Social, Encuesta Nacional de Empleo 1998. 6,186,938 Mexicans were documented as earning less than Mexico's legal minimum wage in 1993.

88. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

89. Mexican Market Basket Assembled by Coalition for Justice in the Maquiladoras, October 1998 data.

90. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

91. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

92. U.S. Department of Labor data; "U.S. Border Towns Suffer From Post-Nafta Syndrome," The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1998.

93. Brandon, Karen. "NAFTA at Five: Promises and Realities," Chicago Tribune, 11/29/98.

94. Sutter, Mary. "Mexico's Commerce Chief Banks on Nafta to Heal Economic Woes," Journal of Commerce, 11/9/98.

95. "Poll conducted in June 1996 by Mexico City-based Reforma newspaper mentioned by the New York Times, August 4, 1996.

96. "Industria Maquiladora de Exportacion," Instituo Nacional de Estadistica Geografia E Informatica, Juno 1998, p.8.

97. "Industria Maquiladora de Exportacion," Instituo Nacional de Estadistica Geografia E Informatica, Juno 1998, p.8.

98. 98Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

99. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statics, Division of Foreign Labor Statistics, "Comparative Hourly Compensation Costs for Production Workers in Manufacturing Industries, Selected Countries: 1997." Maquiladora wages from BLS, Division of Foreign Labor Statistics data.

100. Mongelluzzo, Bill, "Non-border Maquiladora Growth Lures LTL Firms," Journal of Commerce, 12/2/98, p. 14A.

101. "Mexico's Makeover," Business Week, 12/ 21/98.

102. SUNS: South-North Development Monitor, "Mexico: Opinions sharply divided on NAFTA," #4345, 12/15/ 1998.

103. Imaz, Jose Maria. "NAFTA Damages Small Businesses," El Barzon (Mexico City), January 1997.

104. "Mexican Farmers Request Temporary Suspension of NAFTA," FuturesWorld, 12/16/98

105. Petras, James, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Zeta Magazine, April 1997.

106. See Robert Blecker, "NAFTA and the Peso Collapse: Not Just a Coincidence," EPI Briefing Paper, Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute, 1997.

107. RMALC (Mexican Action on Free Trade). Mirage and Reality: NAFTA Three Years Later, Analysis and Proposals from Civil Society, Red Mexicana de Accion Frente al Libre Comercio, April 1997.

108. Business Week, "Mexico's Makeover," 12/21/98.

109. INEGI, "Manufacturing Industry Productivity, Various Countries January 1993-September 1998."

110. Imaz, Jose Maria. "Provoked by Debt, Mexicans Find a Voice," Los Angeles Times, 4/22/96.

111. Petras, James, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Zeta Magazine, April 1997.

112. United Nations Development Program, "Human Poverty Profile and Index; UNDP 1998 Human Development Report." UNDP measured poverty rate from 1989-1994. See, Diana Alarcon, National Poverty Reduction Strategies of Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico, UNDP, September 11-12, 1997, for information on the constancy of Mexico's poverty rate since 1984.

113. Petras, James, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Zeta Magazine, April 1997.

114. Ethyl Corporation, "U.S. Company Files Notice to Seek $200 Million in Claim Against Government of Canada," Press Release, September 10, 1996.

115. "NAFTA Lawsuits Cloud MAI Discussions," Parliamentary Bureau, August 24, 1998.

116. See "'Expropriations' Takes on New Meaning: MMT Case Sets Far-Reaching Precedent," The Financial Post, 7/28/98.

117. "NHL Meets NAFTA," The Arizona Republic, 5/13/98.

118. Government Accounting Office (GAO), Commercial Trucking: Safety Concerns about Mexican Trucks Remain Even as Inspection Increases, April 1997.

119. Government Accounting Office (GAO), Commercial Trucking: Safety Concerns about Mexican Trucks Remain Even as Inspection Increases, April 1997. Texas Department of Public Safety, 12/14/98 interview with Major Lester Mills.

120. Texas Department of Public Safety, 12/14/98 interview with Major Lester Mills.

121. U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General Audit Report: Motor Safety Carrier Program for Trucks at U.S. Borders, December 28, 1998.

122. Texas Department of Public Safety; 12/14/98 interview with Major Lester Mills; U.S. Department of Transportation data.

123. Citizens for Reliable and Safe Highways, NAFTA: The Facts, September 1997.

124. Langford, Mark. "Nugent: Mexican Trucks Breaking State Law," UPI, October 28, 1997, quoting Nugent, Chairman of the Texas Railroad Commission.

125. Washington Post, September 25, 1996.

126. "U.S. Task Force Says Smugglers Exploit Rising Cross-Border Trade," Dallas Morning News, 5/11/98.

127. Shannon, Kelly. "NAFTA's increased truck traffic is cited for rise of heroin in U.S.," Austin-American Statesman, 1/3/98.

128. Shenkle, Lisa. "200,000 stolen vehicles shipped from U.S. Ports; Mexico is Gateway to Latin America," Journal of Commerce, 10/22/98.

129. Washington Post, 12/9/96.

130. Calculations based on number of workers certified by the NAFTA-TAA program by May 1998, and amount of money spent on workers, as documented by Journal of Commerce, May 13, 1998.

131. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

132. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

133. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

134. Brandon, Karen."NAFTA at Five," Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1998.

135. There is no judicial remedy under the Labor Side Agreement for governments that do not uphold and enforce the right to organize.

136. U.S. National Administrative Office, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Public Report and Review of NAO Submission Nol 9702, April 28, 1998.

137. U.S.-Mexico Chamber of Commerce, "The North American Free Trade Agreement at Four Years (sic): What it Means for the U.S. and Mexico," June 1998.

138. Wall Street Journal, 10/15/97. The article states, " Both supporters and opponents of NAFTA agree that the side agreements have had little impact, mainly because the mechanisms they created have no enforcement power."

139. Poll Conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc. for the AFL-CIO, July 18-22, 1997.

140. CEC, Taking Stock: North American Pollutants and Transfers, 1995.

141. "The Sewer Wars," The Economist, August 8, 1998.

142. "The Sewer Wars," The Economist, August 8, 1998.

143. NADBank, "NADB Projects as of September 15, 1998."