|Date Of Involvement:||12/20/2010|
This case presented the following questions:
1. Must all (approximately 16,000) putative class members – who are subject to the Prison Litigation Reform Act (“PLRA”) – prove that they suffered a physical injury to recover emotional and mental damages, or are the class members exempt from the PLRA’s physical injury requirement as long as the named class representative has suffered a physical injury?
2. Can a prisoner conditions of confinement case be certified as a class action under Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3), if the complaint alleges various constitutional violations based on multiple confinement policies, and each alleged violation can only be determined on a case-by-case basis?